ATSDR ToxFAQsTM for
This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about CDDs. For more information, you may call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present.
HIGHLIGHTS: Exposure to chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) (75 chemicals) occurs mainly from eating food that contains the chemicals. One chemical in this group, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or 2,3,7,8-TCDD, has been shown to be very toxic in animal studies. It causes effects on the skin and may cause cancer in people. This chemical has been found in at least 91 of 1,467 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
What are CDDs?
CDDs are a family of 75 chemically related compounds commonly known as chlorinated dioxins. One of these compounds is called 2,3,7,8-TCDD. It is one of the most toxic of the CDDs and is the one most studied.
In the pure form, CDDs are crystals or colorless solids.
CDDs enter the environment as mixtures containing a number of individual components. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is odorless and the odors of the other CDDs are not known.
CDDs are not intentionally manufactured by industry except for research purposes. They (mainly 2,3,7,8-TCDD) may be formed during the chlorine bleaching process at pulp and paper mills. CDDs are also formed during chlorination by waste and drinking water treatment plants. They can occur as contaminants in the manufacture of certain organic chemicals. CDDs are released into the air in emissions from municipal solid waste and industrial incinerators.
What happens to CDDs when they enters the environment?
How might I be exposed to CDDs?
How can CDDs affect my health?
The most noted health effect in people exposed to large amounts of 2,3,7,8-TCDD is chloracne. Chloracne is a severe skin disease with acne-like lesions that occur mainly on the face and upper body. Other skin effects noted in people exposed to high doses of 2,3,7,8-TCDD include skin rashes, discoloration, and excessive body hair. Changes in blood and urine that may indicate liver damage also are seen in people. Exposure to high concentrations of CDDs may induce long-term alterations in glucose metabolism and subtle changes in hormonal levels.
In certain animal species, 2,3,7,8-TCDD is especially harmful and can cause death after a single exposure. Exposure to lower levels can cause a variety of effects in animals, such as weight loss, liver damage, and disruption of the endocrine system. In many species of animals, 2,3,7,8-TCDD weakens the immune system and causes a decrease in the systemís ability to fight bacteria and viruses. In other animal studies, exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD has caused reproductive damage and birth defects. Some animal species exposed to CDDs during pregnancy had miscarriages and the offspring of animals exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD during pregnancy often had severe birth defects including skeletal deformities, kidney defects, and weakened immune responses.
How likely are CDDs to cause cancer?
Several studies suggest that exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD increases the risk of several types of cancer in people. Animal studies have also shown an increased risk of cancer from exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined that 2,3,7,8-TCDD is a human carcinogen.
The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that 2,3,7,8-TCDD may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer.
How can CDDs affect children?
Very few studies have looked at the effects of CDDs on children. Chloracne has been seen in children exposed to high levels of CDDs. We don't know if CDDs affect the ability of people to have children or if it causes birth defects, but given the effects observed in animal studies, this cannot be ruled out.
How can families reduce the risk of exposure to CDDs?
Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to CDDs?
Tests are available to measure CDD levels in body fat, blood, and breast milk, but these tests are not routinely available. Most people have low levels of CDDs in their body fat and blood, and levels considerably above these levels indicate past exposure to above-normal levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although CDDs stay in body fat for a long time, tests cannot be used to determine when exposure occurred.
Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health?
The EPA has set a limit of 0.00003 micrograms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD per liter of drinking water (0.00003 Ķg/L). Discharges, spills, or accidental releases of 1 pound or more of 2,3,7,8-TCDD must be reported to EPA. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends against eating fish and shellfish with levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD greater than 50 parts per trillion (50 ppt).
Source of Information
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1998. Toxicological profile for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
Where can I get more information?
ATSDR can tell you where to find occupational and environmental health clinics. Their specialists can recognize, evaluate, and treat illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. You can also contact your community or state health or environmental quality department if you have any more questions or concerns.
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